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Throughout this area it competes quite strongly with guajolote. As shown in maphe encountered this form only in the southern part of the state, a defining term for his north-south distinction. A gramaaticario piece of as much as four centuries of local ethnic heritage, vramaticario ethnic language, is lost to increasing numbers of Hispanics.

We will use as the two ethnicity labels: Many consultants lacked a specific word for this bird. Example comes from a seventy-eight-year-old man from Chama, Colorado, and example from a thirty-four-year-old man from Pastura near Santa RosaNew Mexico.

And on and on. This is not to say, nevertheless, that there are no value judgments associated with the different varieties of Spanish available. Many items are, of course, represented in all three sources. What are those linguistic entrails, that set of common features? But it is not the typical traditional linguistic atlas that presents material accessible gramaticaruo to the specialist.

This experience with New Mexican Spanish led to a career-long research interest in this variety. That derision has engendered a lot of the linguistic insecurity discussed under myth 1 in chapter 2. Attributions of an origin for this New Mexican Spanish label seem to be apocryphal. The lack of grmaticario suggests that the form developed and spread in Mexico as a regional minority variant of little prestige, gramagicario used by those gramaticraio did much of the writing.

Rather, they seem to be trotting off along the same path to extinction as they already did in Mexico. Data and Maps Terminology This book is an exploration of the Spanish language as it is spoken across New Mexico and the southern third of Colorado.

Thus, beyond providing insight into the loss of Spanish to be treated in chapter 13this item yields an accurately specific response gramtaicario only a minority of consultants.


As a consequence, one of the distinctive features of American Spanish in contrast with the Spanish of central Spain is the incorporation of maritime vocabulary. The gallinas are not coming home to roost. After several hours [of the interview, she] indicated that I had overstayed my welcome.

El Gramaticario

Information from these two databases is exported a to the MapInfo software program gramatiario generation e all maps presented here and b to the SPSS software program for production of all tables and statistical analyses.

Before responding to that question, we need to probe the fascinating historical development of these labels. No dictionary has accomplished that either, for other very practical reasons. For three hundred years, the Spanish speakers of the Southwest endured in isolation on the northern fringes of the Spanish-speaking Western Hemisphere, and the routine immigrants were absorbed, culturally and linguistically, into the existing communities.

We have combined the 2 Border Spanish forms for display on mapand their distribution reveals once again the typical Border Spanish dialect pattern. But note the appropriate hedging in these quotes: Pedrero and Alvar report the 2 instances for New Mexico and none for elsewhere in the Southwest.

Second, they had to have been exposed to Spanish as children and to have developed sufficient skill in the language even if largely receptive to participate in a lengthy interview that usually lasted two to three hours. Like the rest of Latin America and unlike Spain, the second person plural pronoun vosotros and the verb forms associated with it are never used in everyday speech.

According to the Census, which describes the situation closest to the time of the NMCOSS data collection, the total area contained somepersons above the age of eighteen who were reported to speak Spanish at home U. We use the term Hispanics instead. Deming had to be a target. With a little experience, the interviewers became very effective in leading the consultants through this task and securing responses gramatixario were usually gramaticarko in both grammatical person and tense.

He has had the privilege of being able to pursue that interest.

Many forms characteristic of sixteenth-century Gramwticario remained entrenched in Traditional Spanish through the centuries rgamaticario mainstream Spanish went veering off to altered meanings, altered forms, alternative forms, or entirely new words.

Kiddle reports no instances of torque below the latitude These distortions are not included on the map. New words crop up here and there daily; dictionary makers have to gather evidence of a word, orally or in writing, before gramaticraio can put it in the dictionary.


We may surmise that guajolote came into gramatucario New Mexico in the nineteenth century and that its further spread is attributable to the increasing influence of Mexican Spanish via immigration in the twentieth century. Otherwise, vestido occurs only sporadically, particularly in the Albuquerque and Santa Fe areas where Mexican immigration has been significant.

Accordingly, we targeted one locality in the far south and another in the north, possibly the town of Taos or preferably the somewhat more densely Hispanic village of Questa north of Taos. And approximately one-fifth of the region is comprised of Indian reservations. Texas declared its independence in and was welcomed into the United States in This book is about language and people. Those intermediate labels may be based on varied criteria: As we will see, the extent to which Spanish was acquired at home gramaticafio highly variable and many consultants had broadened their Spanish through study and travel, but both facts reflect important parts of the reality of New Mexican Spanish.

This myth has no basis in any kind of linguistic measure, of course. English and Mexican Spanish.

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Is it an archaism or is it not? The Southerners, with their stronger links to Mexico, often have greater linguistic status, at least if they are 13 sufficiently self-confident to recognize this power.

Moreover, both forms are about equally prominent: The semantic conflict might well impede the spread of this form from Mexico. Kindergarten to First Grade. This difference in self identification shows up clearly in the findings of the U. Impressive as this proportion may seem, it is important to recognize that maintenance of Spanish is not absolute. In New Mexican Spanish and many 74 other nonstandard varieties, however, the archaic b is retained where the preceding theme vowel i is absorbed into a preceding vowel to form a diphthong.

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